Arapaho Imperatives: Indirectness, Politeness and Communal "Face" Journal Article uri icon



  • This article first provides a description of the imperative verb order in Arapaho, which has never been fully described. It then examines the use of indirect imperatives in particular, which grammaticalize the roles of third parties, as well as speakers and addressees. Close attention is paid to the interplay between prototypical reference‐world situations, questions of socially‐determined authority and relationships, and the issue of deference and politeness more generally. This discussion is placed in the context of Arapaho society, where traditional ceremonial roles, stereotyped kinship relationships, and an age‐graded hierarchy remain important among older Arapaho speakers. The article concludes with a consideration of the concept of communal "face" as a revision to excessively individualistic analyses of politeness.

publication date

  • June 1, 2007

has restriction

  • closed

Date in CU Experts

  • September 30, 2013 1:20 AM

Full Author List

  • Cowell A

author count

  • 1

Other Profiles

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1055-1360

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1548-1395

Additional Document Info

start page

  • 44

end page

  • 60


  • 17


  • 1