GOES observations of solar protons during ground level enhancements Journal Article uri icon



  • ; Since 1974, the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has observed solar proton fluxes from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES). These observations frequently have ; served as measurements of the primary component of ground level enhancements (GLEs). Until March 2020, when GOES-14 and -15 were turned off, solar proton measurements were made by the Energetic Particle Sensor ; (EPS) and the High-Energy Proton and Alpha Detector (HEPAD). EPS had poor energy resolution above 100 MeV, and NOAA derived a >100 MeV integral flux from the EPS channels to support alerts issued by the Space ; Weather Forecast Office. HEPAD provided some energy resolution in the 330-700 MeV range and a >700 MeV integral channel. Starting with GOES-16, a new instrument called the Solar and Galactic Proton Sensor (SGPS) ; has replaced EPS and HEPAD. SGPS uses three solid-state telescopes to observe solar proton fluxes between 1 and 500 MeV with a >500 MeV integral channel. The >100 MeV integral flux is now derived from SGPS ; observations and includes the >500 MeV flux in its derivation. In this paper, we describe the older EPS and HEPAD observations and the new SGPS solar proton observations. We also compare methods for detecting ; solar proton event onsets currently used with GOES and neutron monitor observations and recommend some innovations.;

publication date

  • November 20, 2023

has restriction

  • hybrid

Date in CU Experts

  • November 28, 2023 6:59 AM

Full Author List

  • Rodriguez JV; Kress BT

author count

  • 2

Other Profiles

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 2748-3150

Additional Document Info

start page

  • 69

end page

  • 80