I Say, You Say, We Say Journal Article uri icon



  • Collaborative problem solving (CPS) is a crucial 21st century skill; however, current technologies fall short of effectively supporting CPS processes, especially for remote, computer-enabled interactions. In order to develop next-generation computer-supported collaborative systems that enhance CPS processes and outcomes by monitoring and responding to the unfolding collaboration, we investigate automated detection of three critical CPS process ? construction of shared knowledge, negotiation/coordination, and maintaining team function ? derived from a validated CPS framework. Our data consists of 32 triads who were tasked with collaboratively solving a challenging visual computer programming task for 20 minutes using commercial videoconferencing software. We used automatic speech recognition to generate transcripts of 11,163 utterances, which trained humans coded for evidence of the above three CPS processes using a set of behavioral indicators. We aimed to automate the trained human-raters' codes in a team-independent fashion (current study) in order to provide automatic real-time or offline feedback (future work). We used Random Forest classifiers trained on the words themselves (bag of n-grams) or with word categories (e.g., emotions, thinking styles, social constructs) from the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count (LIWC) tool. Despite imperfect automatic speech recognition, the n-gram models achieved AUROC (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve) scores of .85, .77, and .77 for construction of shared knowledge, negotiation/coordination, and maintaining team function, respectively; these reflect 70%, 54%, and 54% improvements over chance. The LIWC-category models achieved similar scores of .82, .74, and .73 (64%, 48%, and 46% improvement over chance). Further, the LIWC model-derived scores predicted CPS outcomes more similar to human codes, demonstrating predictive validity. We discuss embedding our models in collaborative interfaces for assessment and dynamic intervention aimed at improving CPS outcomes.

publication date

  • November 7, 2019

has restriction

  • bronze

Date in CU Experts

  • January 30, 2020 11:32 AM

Full Author List

  • Stewart AEB; Vrzakova H; Sun C; Yonehiro J; Stone CA; Duran ND; Shute V; D'Mello SK

author count

  • 8

Other Profiles

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 2573-0142

Additional Document Info

start page

  • 1

end page

  • 19


  • 3


  • CSCW