The Ankilitelo cave site, Madagascar, contains a large collection of extant and recently extinct subfossil lemurs including the extant taxa
Lemur cattaand Eulemur rufifrons, which today are rarely found in sympatry. Dates for this assemblage range from 300 to 13,000 BP, though known dates for extinct primate specimens range between ∼500 and ∼600 BP. Data from Ankilitelo L. cattaand E. rufifronswere compared to assess tooth wear in sympatric, related forms. Wear was scored using an ordinal scale from 0 to 5. For P4, M1 and M2, E. rufifronsdisplays significantly more wear than L. catta. Ankilitelo represents one of the most southerly samples of E. rufifrons,and wear data suggest that in the recent (i.e. Holocene) past, their diet near the edges of their geographic range included mechanically challenging foods. In contrast, sympatric L. cattawas using foods in this transitional humid-dry forest with succulent woodlands that were not significantly impacted by recent human actions, and for which they were dentally adapted. Results also suggest that this non-gallery forest habitat may be the ‘adaptive home' of L. catta, given the lack of notable tooth wear when compared to populations currently living in tamarind-dominated riverine gallery forests.